In 1872, the History and Archaeology Society of Southern Hungary is established, and its first president is Zsigmond Ormós (1813-1894), who at that time also served as the Prefect of Timiș County.
In 1877, the museum opens its doors to the public. The exhibitions are held in the Wellauer house (now the library of the Romanian Academy) and present artifacts discovered or acquired by the scholars of the History and Archaeology Society.
In 1896, the Museum of Banat exhibits some of its treasures at the Exhibition in Budapest, earning a bronze medal and a Gratitude Diploma.
The period of 1914-1918 brings severe financial difficulties for the museum due to the outbreak of the First World War. Nevertheless, members of the History and Archaeology Society find resources to support the Empire's war efforts with 10,000 Rr. Despite the many problems, the museum manages to expand its collections. Inspired by Berkeszi István, the main curator, the museum starts collecting war memorabilia and opens the first exhibition dedicated to The Great War in 1917.
From 1919 to 1948, after the Banat province becomes part of the Romanian Kingdom, the Museum of Banat struggles with limited space and administrative issues. It is Emanuil Ungureanu who convinces the City Council to take charge of the museum's affairs. In 1928, the renowned Banat intellectual Ioachim Miloia becomes the museum's director. Until his untimely death in 1940, he encourages numerous archaeological and ethnographic studies in the Banat region. During the Second World War, the entire museum collection must be relocated for safekeeping.
The period of 1948-1989 brings a serious reorganization for the museum, which was heavily affected by the war. In 1948, Marius Moga becomes the museum's director. In the same year, the museum is relocated to Huniade Castle. For the first time in its history, the museum has a building worthy of its prestige. M. Moga contributes to the museum's rebirth, quickly reorganizing the collections and relaunching archaeological investigations in the Banat region. He is also responsible for attracting young and enthusiastic researchers like Florin Medelet or Ortansa Radu. During the 1989 Revolution, the collections are bravely defended by employees who spend nights guarding the museum's treasures.
Furthermore, it is important to mention that due to restoration works, the administration of the Museum and the temporary exhibitions are currently hosted at Theresia Bastion, located at Martin Luther Street, number 4. This iconic venue provides a picturesque and impressive setting for exploring the remarkable collections and cultural events organized by the National Museum of Banat.